(Trans-Multi)Culturally Responsive Mathematics: (Re)Creating Spaces for Loving Kindness

Authors

  • Latika Raisinghani University of British Columbia

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.25071/1916-4467.40413

Keywords:

culturally responsive education, mathematics education, loving kindness, social and ecological justice, Indigenous ways of knowing

Abstract

In this paper, I relive my experiences of (un)learning, (re)learning and (re)searching mathematics in multiple cultural contexts. I begin by recounting the moments of dilemma that many students encounter in various cultural contexts, which inspired me to weave the threads of (trans-multi)culturally responsive mathematics. I share this story through the narratives, poems and digital postcards that I created in my auto-ethnographical life writing of engaging in (re)learning of and with(in) mathematics. Underlying these efforts and actions is the hope that sharing these may help in creating spaces for inviting (trans-multi)culturally responsive mathematics in contemporary diversity-rich classrooms. Informed by critical and transformational multicultural education perspectives and the insights of key curriculum scholars—Aoki, Pinar, Schwab, Leggo and Noddings—a (trans-multi)culturally responsive mathematics is a calling for teachers to acknowledge mathematics as a human endeavour. It is an initiation to invite student’s lived experiences and multiple ways of knowing in mathematics classrooms with relational caring and loving kindness. Aiming to educate diverse students in a socially-just manner, a (trans-multi)culturally responsive mathematics urges teachers to embrace wholistic teaching that not only focuses on the mind and body, but also strives for educating the heart and spirit. Thus, it is an ethical, intellectual, political and relational inquiry, which critically engages students with mathematics to discover what knowledge is most worth within and beyond the boundaries of classroom(s) and thereby empowers them to co-create mathematics that is living.

Author Biography

Latika Raisinghani, University of British Columbia

PhD Curriculum Studies (Science Education) University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada

References

Abtahi, Y., & Wagner, D. (2016). Violence in un-rooted mathematics. For the Learning of Mathematics, 36(3), 39-40. https://unbscholar.lib.unb.ca/islandora/object/unbscholar%3A8130/datastream/PDF/view

Adichie, C. N. (2009, July). The danger of a single story [Video]. TEDGlobal 2009. https://www.ted.com/talks/chimamanda_adichie_the_danger_of_a_single_story

Anthony, G., & Walshaw, M. (2009). Characteristics of effective teaching of mathematics: A view from the West. Journal of Mathematics Education, 2(2), 147-164. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/228743535_Characteristics_of_Effective_Teaching_of_Mathematics_A_View_from_the_West

Aoki, T. T. (1986/2005). Teaching as indwelling between two curriculum worlds. In W. F. Pinar & R. L. Irwin (Eds.), Curriculum in a new key: The collected works of Ted T. Aoki (pp. 159-165). Lawrence Erlbaum.

Aoki, T. T. (1993/2005). Legitimizing lived curriculum: Toward a curricular landscape of multiplicity. In W. F. Pinar & R. L. Irwin (Eds.), Curriculum in a new key: The collected works of Ted T. Aoki (pp. 199-215). Lawrence Erlbaum.

Archibald, J. (2008). Indigenous storywork: Educating the heart, mind, body, and spirit. University of British Columbia Press. https://www.ubcpress.ca/indigenous-storywork

Armstrong, A. (2018). The authoring of school mathematics: Whose story is it anyways? In Education: Exploring our Connective Educational Landscape, 24(2), 24-34. https://ineducation.ca/ineducation/article/view/402/966

Ascher, M. (1991). Ethnomathematics: A multicultural view of mathematical ideas (1st ed.). Routledge. https://doi.org/10.1201/9780203756522

Baumeister, R. F., & Leary, M. R. (1995). The need to belong: Desire for interpersonal attachments as a fundamental human motivation. Psychological Bulletin, 117(3), 497-529. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.117.3.497

Bhabha, H. K. (1994). The location of culture. Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203820551

Bishop, A. J. (1985). The social construction of meaning: A significant development for mathematics education. For the Learning of Mathematics, 5(1), 24-28. https://www.jstor.org/stable/40247873

Bishop, A. J. (1988). Mathematics education and culture. Springer Netherlands. https://www.springer.com/gp/book/9789027728029

Bishop, A. J. (1994). Cultural conflicts in mathematics education: Developing a research agenda. For the Learning of Mathematics, 14(2), 15-18.

Bishop, A. J., Tan, H., & Barkatsas, T. N. (2015). Diversity in mathematics education towards inclusive practices. Springer International. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-05978-5

Boaler, J. (1993). The role of contexts in the mathematics classroom. For the Learning of Mathematics, 13(2), 12-17.

Boaler, J. (1998). Open and closed mathematics: Student experiences and understandings. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 29(1), 41-62. https://www.jstor.org/stable/749717

Boaler, J. (2006, February). Promoting respectful learning. Educational Leadership, 63(5), 74-78. http://www.ascd.org/publications/educational-leadership/feb06/vol63/num05/Promoting-Respectful-Learning.aspx

Cajete, G. (1994). Look to the mountain: An ecology of indigenous education (1st ed.). Kivakí .

Castellano, M. B. (2004). Ethics of Aboriginal research. Journal of Aboriginal Health, 1(1), 98-114. https://jps.library.utoronto.ca/index.php/ijih/article/view/28935/24063

Cresswell, T. (2004). Place: A short introduction (1st ed.). Wiley-Blackwell.

D’Ambrosio, U. (1986). Socio-cultural basis for mathematics education. In M. Carss (Ed.), Proceedings of the fifth international congress on mathematical education (pp. 1-6). Birkhäuser. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4757-4238-1_1

D’Ambrosio, U. (2008). Peace, social justice and ethnomathematics. In B. Sriraman (Ed.), International perspectives on social justice in mathematics education (pp. 37-50). Information Age.

Duval, A. (2018, February 19). Kindness in the mathematics classroom. In M. Saul (Ed.), American mathematical society blogs: Advancing research. Creating connections. On teaching and learning mathematics. https://blogs.ams.org/matheducation/2018/02/19/kindness-in-the-mathematics-classroom/

Egbo, B. (2009). Teaching for diversity in Canadian schools. Pearson Prentice Hall.

Ellis, C. (2004). The ethnographic I: A methodological novel about autoethnography. AltaMira Press.

Ellis, C., & Bochner, A. P. (2000). Autoethnography, personal narrative, reflexivity: Research as subject. In N. Denzin, & Y. Lincoln (Eds.), Handbook of qualitative research (2nd ed., pp. 733-768). Sage.

Erickson, F. (2010). Culture in society and in educational practices. In J. A. Banks & C. A. M. Banks (Eds.), Multicultural education: Issues and perspectives (7th ed., pp. 33-56). Wiley.

Esmonde, I. (2014). “Nobody’s rich and nobody's poor. . . . It sounds good, but it’s actually not”: Affluent students learning mathematics and social justice. The Journal of the Learning Sciences, 23(3), 348-391. https://doi.org/10.1080/10508406.2013.847371

Ezeife, A. N. (2003). The pervading influence of cultural border crossing and collateral learning on the learner of science and mathematics. Canadian Journal of Native Education, 27(2), 179-194.

Farhat, A. (2017, December 27). “I’m not sorry that I don’t know how to please you”: Honest confessions of an Indian bahu. YKA: Youth Ki Awaaz. https://www.youthkiawaaz.com/2017/12/indian-women-the-most-stressed-out-in-the-world-nielsen-survey/

Faust, M. W. (1992). Analysis of physiological reactivity in mathematics anxiety [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. Bowling Green State University.

Frankenstein, M. (2013). Reading the world with math: Goals for a critical mathematical literacy curriculum. In E. Gutstein & B. Peterson (Eds.), Rethinking mathematics teaching: Social justice by the numbers (2nd ed., pp. 30-39). Rethinking Schools.

Freire, P. (2000). Pedagogy of the oppressed (30th anniversary ed.). Bloomsbury Academic.

Gay, G. (2003). Becoming multicultural educators: Personal journey toward professional agency. Jossey-Bass.

Gay, G. (2010a). Acting on beliefs in teacher education for cultural diversity. Journal of Teacher Education, 61(1-2), 143-152. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022487109347320

Gay, G. (2010b). Culturally responsive teaching: Theory, research, and practice (2nd ed.). Teachers College Press.

Gershenson, S., Holt, S. B., & Papageorge, N. W. (2016). Who believes in me? The effect of student-teacher demographic match on teacher expectations. Economics of Education Review, 52(2016), 209-224. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.econedurev.2016.03.002

Ghosh, R., & Abdi, A. A. (2013). Education and the politics of difference: Select Canadian perspectives. Canadian Scholars’ Press.

Goodenough, W. H. (1976). Multiculturalism as the normal human experience. Anthropology & Education Quarterly, 7(4), 4-7. https://doi.org/10.1525/aeq.1976.7.4.05x1652n

Goyal, M. (2011, June 29). Indian women most stressed in the world: Nielsen survey. ET bureau. The Economic Times. https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/indian-women-most-stressed-in-the-world-nielsen-survey/articleshow/9031890.cms

Gruenewald, D. A. (2003). Foundations of place: A multidisciplinary framework for place-conscious education. American Educational Research Journal, 40(3), 619-654. https://doi.org/10.3102/00028312040003619

Gruenewald, D. A. (2008). The best of both worlds: A critical pedagogy of place. Environmental Education Research, 14(3), 308-324. https://doi.org/10.1080/13504620802193572

Gutiérrez, R. (2008). A “gap-gazing” fetish in mathematics education? Problematizing research on the achievement gap. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 39(4), 357-364.

Gutiérrez, R. (2011). Beyond gap gazing: How can thinking about education comprehensively help us (re)envision mathematics education? In B. Atweh, M. Graven, W. Secada, & P. Valero, (Ed.), Mapping equity and quality in mathematics education (pp. 21-34). Springer Netherlands. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-90-481-9803-0_2

Gutstein, E. (2006a). “The real world as we have seen it”: Latino/a parents’ voices on teaching mathematics for social justice. Mathematical Thinking and Learning, 8(3), 331-358. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327833mtl0803_7

Gutstein, E. (2006b). Reading and writing the world with mathematics: Toward a pedagogy for social justice. Routledge.

Gutstein, E. (2007). Connecting community, critical, and classical knowledge in teaching mathematics for social justice. The Montana Mathematics Enthusiast, Monograph 1, 109-118.

Gutstein, E. (2010). Critical multicultural approaches to mathematics in urban K-12 classrooms. In S. May & C. Sleeter (Eds.), Critical multiculturalism: Theory and praxis (pp. 127-137). Routledge.

Howard, P. (2014). Affinity spaces and ecologies of practice: Digital composing processes of pre-service English teachers. Language and Literacy, 16(1), 34-52. https://doi.org/10.20360/G2S010

Keating, A. (2007). Teaching transformation: Transcultural classroom dialogues. Palgrave Macmillan.

Khan, S., & Armstrong, A. (2019). Math-a-Polka: Mathematics as a place of loving kindness and . . . [Editorial]. Journal of the Canadian Association for Curriculum Studies, 17(1), pp. 1-12. https://jcacs.journals.yorku.ca/index.php/jcacs/article/view/40441

Kirkness, V. J., & Barnhardt, R. (2001). First Nations and higher education: The four Rs—Respect, relevance, reciprocity, responsibility. In R. Hayoe & J. Pan (Eds.), Knowledge across cultures: A contribution to dialogue among civilizations (pp. 1-21). Comparative Education Research Centre, The University of Hong Kong. https://uaf.edu/ankn/publications/collective-works-of-ray-b/Four-Rs-2nd-Ed.pdf

Kirova, A. (2008). Critical and emerging discourses in multicultural education literature: A review. Canadian Ethnic Studies, 40(1), 101-124. https://doi.org/10.1353/ces.0.0065

Knapp, C. (2005). The ‘I-thou’ relationship, place-based education, and Aldo Leopold. Journal of Experiential Education, 27(3), 277-285. https://doi.org/10.1177/105382590502700307

Kovach, M. (2009). Indigenous methodologies: Characteristics, conversations and contexts. University of Toronto Press.

Ladson-Billings, G. (2001). Crossing over to Canaan: The journey of new teachers in diverse classrooms (1st ed.). Jossey-Bass.

Larnell, G. V., Bullock, E. C., & Jett, C. C. (2016). Rethinking teaching and learning mathematics for social justice from a critical race perspective. Journal of Education, 196(1), 19-29. https://doi.org/10.1177/002205741619600104

Leggo, C. (2015, November 13). The curriculum of character. Poetic ruminations on growing old. In W. E. Doll, Jr., D. Trueit, & W. Pinar (Hosts), Diverse Perspectives on Curriculum & Pedagogy, 2015-2016 [Seminar series]. Department of Curriculum and Pedagogy, Faculty of Education, University of British Columbia.

Leonard, J., Russell, N. M., Hobbs, R. M., & Buchanan, H. (2013). Using GIS to teach place-based mathematics in rural classrooms. The Rural Educator, 34(3), 10-17. https://doi.org/10.35608/ruraled.v34i3.395

Leong, C., & Liu, J. H. (2013). Whither multiculturalism? Global identities at a cross-roads. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 37(6), 657-662. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijintrel.2013.09.004

Lyons, I. M., & Beilock, S. L. (2012). When math hurts: Math anxiety predicts pain network activation in anticipation of doing math. PloS One, 7(10), e48076-e48076. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0048076

McLennan, D. P. (2018). Counting kindness: A food drive inspires rich mathematical thinking. Young Children, 73(1), 63-68.

Mukhopadhyay, S., Powell, A., & Frankenstein, M. (2009). An ethnomathematical perspective on culturally responsive mathematics education. In S. Nelson-Barber, B. Greer, S. Mukhopadhyay, & A. B. Powell (Eds.), Culturally responsive mathematics education (pp. 65-84). Taylor & Francis. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203879948

Mulvihill, T. M., & Swaminathan, R. (2017). Critical approaches to life writing methods in qualitative research. Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315629582

Nelson-Barber, S., Greer, B., Mukhopadhyay, S., & Powell, A. B. (2009). Culturally responsive mathematics education. Taylor & Francis. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203879948

Nicol, C., Archibald, J., & Baker, J. (2010). Investigating culturally responsive mathematics education. Canadian Council on Learning. https://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.664.4716&rep=rep1&type=pdf

Nicol, C., Archibald, J., & Baker, J. (2013). Designing a model of culturally responsive mathematics education: Place, relationships and storywork. Mathematics Education Research Journal, 25(1), 73-89. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13394-012-0062-3

Nicol C., & Krykorka F. (2016). The place of problems in problem based learning: A case of mathematics and teacher education. In M. Filipenko & J. A. Naslund (Eds.), Problem-Based learning in teacher education (pp. 173-186). Springer International. https://doi-org.ezproxy.library.uvic.ca/10.1007/978-3-319-02003-7_12

Nieto, S. (2000). Affirming diversity: The sociopolitical context of multicultural education (3rd ed.). Longman.

Noddings, N. (1994). Does everybody count? Reflections on reforms in school mathematics. Journal of Mathematical Behavior, 13(1), 89-104. https://doi.org/10.1016/0732-3123(94)90040-X

Noddings, N. (2012). The language of care ethics. Knowledge Quest, 40(5), 52-56.

Nolan, K. (2009). Mathematics in and through social justice: Another misunderstood marriage? Journal of Mathematics Teacher Education, 12(3), 205-216. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10857-009-9111-6

Pinar, W. F. (1975, April). The method of “currere” [Paper presentation]. Annual Meeting of the American Research Association, Washington, D.C. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED104766.pdf

Pinar, W. F. (1993). Notes on understanding curriculum as a racist text. In C. McCarthy & W. Crichlow (Eds.), Race, identity and representation in education (pp. 60-70). Routledge.

Pinar, W. F. (2012). What is curriculum theory? Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203836033

Pollock, M. (2008). From shallow to deep: Toward a thorough cultural analysis of school achievement patterns. Anthropology & Education Quarterly, 39(4), 369-380. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1548-1492.2008.00028.x

Raisinghani, L. (2016a). (Re) searching (trans-multi) culturally responsive curricular conversations. Journal of the Canadian Association for Curriculum Studies, 14(1), 182-198.

Raisinghani, L. (2016b). Mathematics for all! Needs, prospects and possibilities. Vector: The Official Journal of the BC Association of Mathematics Teachers, 57(2), 29-33. https://www.bcamt.ca/wp-content/uploads/2017/01/572-Fall-2016.pdf

Raisinghani, L. (2018a). Teachers’ perspectives on cultural diversity and gendered cultural practices in science and mathematics classrooms. Alberta Journal of Science Education, 45(3), 14-28. https://sc.teachers.ab.ca/SiteCollectionDocuments/ASEJ/ASEJ-Vol45No3.pdf

Raisinghani, L. (2018b). Teachers’ perspectives on culturally diverse classrooms and responsive science and mathematics teaching [Doctoral dissertation]. The University of British Columbia Library Open Collections. UBC Thesis and Dissertations. https://dx.doi.org/10.14288/1.0372169

Raisinghani, L. (2019). (Trans-multi)culturally responsive education: A critical framework for responding to student diversity. Education Canada, 59(3), 26-31. https://www.edcan.ca/articles/trans-multiculturally-responsive-education/

Ramirez, G., Chang, H., Maloney, E. A., Levine, S. C., & Beilock, S. L. (2016). On the relationship between math anxiety and math achievement in early elementary school: The role of problem solving strategies. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 141, 83-100. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jecp.2015.07.014

Ramirez, G., Shaw, S. T., & Maloney, E. A. (2018). Math anxiety: Past research, promising interventions, and a new interpretation framework. Educational Psychologist, 53(3), 145-164. https://doi.org/10.1080/00461520.2018.1447384

Reed-Danahay, D. (1997). Auto/ethnography: Rewriting the self and the social (1st ed.). Routledge.

Reed-Danahay, D. (2009). Anthropologists, education, and autoethnography. Reviews in Anthropology, 38(1), 28-47. https://doi.org/10.1080/00938150802672931

Rubel, L. H., & Nicol, C. (2020). The power of place: Spatializing critical mathematics education. Mathematical Thinking and Learning, 22(3), 173-194. https://doi.org/10.1080/10986065.2020.1709938

Satzewich, V., & Wong, L. (2014). Transnational identities and practices in Canada. University of British Columbia Press. https://www.ubcpress.ca/asset/9271/1/9780774812832.pdf

Schofield, J. W. (2010). The colorblind perspective in school: Causes and consequences. In J. A. Banks & C. A. M. Banks (Eds.), Multicultural education: Issues and perspectives (7th ed., pp. 259-283). Wiley.

Selin, H., & D’Ambrosio, U. (2001). Mathematics across cultures: The history of non-western mathematics. Springer Netherlands. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-011-4301-1

Shim, J. M. (2013). Teacher’s viewpoints about other’s actions: Implications for multicultural education. Transnational Curriculum Inquiry, 10(2), 17-35.

Sinha, T. (2016, July 5). Here is why an Indian daughter-in-law is often labelled uncultured and rebellious. Women’s Web. https://www.womensweb.in/2016/07/an-indian-daughter-in-law-labeled-uncultured-and-rebellious/

Skovsmose, O. (2011). An invitation to critical mathematics education (1st ed.). Sense. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-6091-442-3

Su, F. (2013, January 18). The lesson of grace in teaching: From weakness to wholeness, the struggle and the hope. The Mathematical Yawp. http://mathyawp.blogspot.com/2013/01/the-lesson-of-grace-in-teaching.html

Suri, R., Monroe, K. B., & Koc, U. (2013). Math anxiety and its effects on consumers’ preference for price promotion formats. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 41(3), 271-282. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11747-012-0313-6

Wagner, D. (2002). Teaching mathematics for peace. Connections, 26(2), 9-12. https://davewagner.ca/articles/Wagner_2002_Math_for_peace.pdf

Downloads

Published

13-12-2021

How to Cite

Raisinghani, L. (2021). (Trans-Multi)Culturally Responsive Mathematics: (Re)Creating Spaces for Loving Kindness . Journal of the Canadian Association for Curriculum Studies, 19(1), 62–87. https://doi.org/10.25071/1916-4467.40413

Issue

Section

Articles